WHAT IS THE INTRODUCTION OF THE 64 & 65 th & DESCRIPTION OF THE 64 th TECHNIQUE( THIRTEEN T
THE INTRODUCTION OF THE 64 & 65 th TECHNIQUES OF MEDITATION;-
64. At the start of sneezing, during fright, in anxiety, above a chasm, flying in battle, in extreme curiosity, at the beginning of hunger, at the end of hunger, be uninterruptedly aware.
65. The purity of other teachings is an impurity to us. in reality, know nothing as pure or impure.
1-Life is a paradox. To reach near you have to travel far, and that which is already achieved you have to achieve again. Nothing is lost. Man remains natural, man remains pure, man remains innocent; it is only that he forgets it. The purity is not disturbed, the innocence is not destroyed. Only a deep forgetfulness is there.
2-That which is to be achieved you are already. In essence, nothing new is to be achieved. You have only to discover, uncover, unfold that which is already the case; hence, both the difficulty of spiritual endeavor and the simplicity. It is very simple if you can understand, but it is very difficult because you have to understand that which you have completely forgotten, that which is so obvious that you never become aware of it, that which is just like your breathing.
3-It goes on continuously, uninterruptedly, but because it goes on continuously, uninterruptedly, you need not be aware of it. Your awareness is not needed; it is not a basic requirement. You can forget it or you can remember it: it is a choice.SANSARA and NIRVANA, the
world and the liberated state of consciousness, are not two things.. just two attitudes, just two choices. You can choose either. You can be in the world because of a certain attitude, and the same world becomes NIRVANA, the same world becomes absolute bliss, just by changing the attitude.
4-You remain the same, everything remains the same; just a change of focus, a change of emphasis, a change of choice, is required. It is easy. Once absolute bliss is achieved, you will laugh about it. Once it is known, you will not be able to understand why you were missing it, how you could miss it. It was there always just waiting to be looked at, and it was yours.
5-A buddha laughs. Anyone who achieves it laughs because the whole thing seems to be ridiculous. You were searching for something which was never lost. The whole effort was absurd. But this happens only when you have achieved it, so those who have achieved it say it is very simple. But those who have not achieved it, they say it is the most arduous thing, the most difficult ..really, not simply difficult, but the most impossible thing.
6-These methods which we will be discussing are told by LORD SHIVA. Those ,who have achieved; they will look too simple, and they are ..remember this.. To our minds things so simple cannot be appealing ..because if techniques are so simple and the abode is so near, if you are already in it, if techniques are so simple and the home is so near, you will look ridiculous to yourself. Then why are you missing it? Rather than feel the ridiculousness of your own ego, you will think that such simple methods cannot help.
7-That is a deception. Your mind will tell you that these simple methods cannot be of any help — that they are so simple, they cannot achieve anything. To achieve divine existence, to achieve the absolute and the ultimate, how can such simple methods be used? How can they be of any help? Your ego will say that they cannot be of any help.
8-Remember another thing.. ego is always interested in something which is difficult, because when something is difficult there is a challenge, and if you can overcome the difficulty your ego will feel fulfilled. The ego is never attracted towards anything which is simple ..never. If you want to give your ego a challenge, then you have to have something difficult devised. If something is simple there is no appeal, because even if you can conquer it there will be no fulfillment of the ego.
9-In the first place, there was nothing to be conquered, the thing was so simple. Ego asks for difficulties — some hurdles to be crossed, some peaks to be conquered. And the more difficult the peak, the more at ease your ego will feel.
10-Because these techniques are so simple, they will not have any appeal to your mind. Remember, that which appeals to the ego cannot help your spiritual growth. Only that which has no appeal to your ego can be a help towards transformation. But this is what happens: if some teacher says that this or that is very difficult, very arduous, that only after lives and lives and lives will you have any possibility for any glimpse, your ego will feel good.
11-These techniques are so simple that right now, here and now, the thing is possible. But then there is no contact with your ego. If one guru says that right now, here, this very moment you can achieve all that is possible to man, that you can become a Buddha or a Christ or a Krishna in this very moment here and now without losing a single instant, then there will be no contact with your ego. You will say, “This is not possible. I must go somewhere else to search for it.”
12-And these techniques are so simple that you can achieve all that is possible to human consciousness at any moment that you decide to achieve it.Here 'simple' mean many things.First, spiritual explosion
is not caused by anything; it is not a causal phenomenon. If it were caused by something, then time would be needed, because time is necessary for the cause to take place.
13-And if time is needed, then it cannot be the case, it cannot happen this very moment. Then you will have to wait for tomorrow or for another life. The next moment will be needed. If anything is causal, then the cause has to take place, and then after the cause the effect will follow,.and you cannot produce the effect right now without the cause; time will be needed. But a spiritual happening is not a causal phenomenon. You are already in that state; just a remembering is needed. It is not a causal phenomenon.
14-It is just like this: in the morning somebody has suddenly awakened you, and you cannot recognize where you are. For a moment you may not even recognize who you are. In a sudden awakening from deep sleep, you may not be able to recognize the place, the time, but within a moment you will recognize. The more alert you will become, the more you will recognize who you are, where you are and what has happened. This is not a causal thing ..just a question of alertness. With a growing alertness, you will recognize.
15-All these techniques are for a growing alertness. You are already the person you long to be, you are already where you want to reach. You have reached your home already. You have never left it really. You have always been there, but dreaming, asleep. You can fall asleep here and then you can dream, and in your dream you can move anywhere; you can go to hell or to heaven or anywhere.
16-Have you ever observed that whenever you are in your dream, one thing is certain? — that you are never in the room in which you are asleep. Have you observed that fact? You can be anywhere, but you will never be in the same room, on the same bed where you are. Because you are already there, there is no need to dream about it. Dream means you have to trek away.
17-You may be sleeping in this room, but you will never dream of this room. There is no need, you are already there. The mind desires something which is not, so the mind moves. It may go to London, to New York, to Calcutta, to the Himalayas, to Tibet, to anywhere. It may go anywhere, but it will never be here. It can be anywhere, but never here — and you are here. This is the case. You are dreaming. Your divine existence is here; you are THAT. But you have been trekking long…. And each dream creates a new sequence of dreaming.
18-Each dream creates new dreams, and you go on dreaming and dreaming and dreaming.All these techniques are just to make you
alert so that you can come out of your dreams back to the place where you have always been, to the state which you have never missed. And you cannot miss it, it is your nature .it is SWABHAV. It is your very being, so how can you miss it? These techniques are just to help your alertness to grow more, to help it become more intense.
19-With the intensity of awareness, everything changes. The more intense the awareness, the less the possibility for dreaming; you become more and more alert about the real. The less intense the awareness, the more you drift into dreaming. So the whole phenomenon is that a non-alert state of mind is the world, and an alert state of mind is NIRVANA. Non-alert, you are what you appear to be. Alert, you are what you are.
20-So the whole question is one of how to change your non-alert state of mind into an alert state of mind, how to become more aware, how to get out of sleep and dreaming. That is why techniques can be of help. Even an alarm clock can be of help .. just an artificial device, just an alarm clock. But if the alarm goes on, it can help to bring you out of your dreaming. 21-But you can deceive it also; you can even dream about it, and then the whole thing is falsified. When the alarm goes, you can dream, you can make a dream around the alarm also. You can dream that you have entered a temple and the bells are going on. Now you have deceived the alarm. It could have broken your sleep, but you can change it into dream itself; you can make it part of your dreaming.
22-If you can make it part of your dreaming, if it can be absorbed into a dreaming process, then it cannot help you. You can dream anything, and then it will not look like an alarm. It will have become something else. You have entered a temple and the bells are….; now there is no need to wake up. You have changed the alarm, the real thing, into a dream, and a dream cannot be disturbed by another dream, it can only be helped.
23-These techniques are all artificial in a way. They are just devices to help bring you out of your dreaming state, but you can make them also part of your dream. Then you miss the point. Try to understand this because this is very basic. And once understood, it will be helpful; otherwise you can go on deceiving yourself.
24-For example, one guru says, “Take a jump into sannyas.” That is just a device. Your old identity is broken; your old name becomes as if it belongs to someone else. You can look at your past more detachedly. You can be a witness. You are aloof, a distance is created. That guru gives a new name and a new robe (kaftan) just to create the distance. But you can make it part of your dreaming; then you will miss the whole point.
25-You can still think in terms of the old ...that the old man, A, has taken sannyas. You feel, “I have taken sannyas. ” “I” remain the old. “I” have changed my robe, my name, but “I” remain the old,.and the old continues. Now this sannyas is just something added to the old. It is not discontinuous, it is continuous. If it is continuous, if YOU have taken sannyas, you the old one, if YOU have changed your robe and name, you have missed the point.
24-You must be dead, you must not be the old now. You must feel that the old has died, that this is a new entity which you never knew, that this is not a growth out of the old. This is discontinuous with the old. Then the device will have helped. Then the alarm will have worked and the technique is useful. You are not missing the point. All these techniques are such that you can miss or you can use them; it depends. But remember well, the techniques are just techniques. If you understand the spirit, you may become alert even without any technique.
25-For example, the alarm clock may not be needed. Go deeply into it. Why do you need an alarm clock? If you want to get up early in the morning at three, why do you need an alarm clock? Deep down you know that you can deceive yourself, and deep down you know that if you really want to get up at three, you will get up at three and no clock is needed. But with the clock, the responsibility is put off. Now you will not be responsible. Now if something goes wrong, the clock is responsible. You can sleep with ease now. Now the clock is there; you can sleep without any disturbance.
26-But if you really want to get up early at three, you will get up early at three. No clock is needed. This very intensity to get up will bring the happening. This will to get up at three may be so intense, you may not be able to sleep at all, and there will be no need to get up; you will already be awake the whole night. But to sleep well the clock is needed. Then you can go to sleep. But you can deceive. When the alarm goes off, you can deceive; you can dream about it.
27-These techniques are helpful only because your intensity is low. If you are really intense, there is no need of any technique; you can be alert. But your intensity is not such. Even with the technique you may start dreaming, and many possibilities are there. The first possibility is that you will not believe that such simple techniques can be of any help. This is the first thing. Then there is no contact.
28-Secondly, you may think that a very, very long process is needed, that it will come gradually. But there are certain things that only happen suddenly, they never come gradually.For example, everyone will die suddenly anyway.Whenever you are going to die, you will die suddenly.
Every death is a sudden death. No death is gradual because either you are alive or dead. There is no gradual process. One moment you are alive and the next moment you are dead. There is no time process.
29-Death is sudden; SAMADHI is also sudden. Spiritual explosion is also sudden. It is like death. It is more like death than it is like life; it is sudden. It can happen at any moment. If you are ready, these techniques can be of help. They will not bring it gradually; really, they will gradually bring you to be ready for the sudden happening. Remember this distinction: they are preparing you so that the sudden SAMADHI happens.
30-These techniques are not techniques for SAMADHI; they are techniques to prepare you, and then SAMADHI happens. So how you use these techniques depends on you. So don’t think that a very long process is needed, because that may be just a trick. The mind says a very long process is needed so that you can postpone. You can say, “Tomorrow I will do it or the day after tomorrow,” and you can go on postponing forever.
31-A postponing mind goes on always postponing. It is not a question of whether you are going to do it tomorrow; there is only a question because you are not going to do it today, that is all. Tomorrow will again be a today, and the same mind will say, “Okay, I am going to do it tomorrow.”
32-And, remember, you never postpone for years. You postpone for one day because if you postpone for years you cannot deceive yourself. You say, “It is only a question of one day. Just today I am not doing it; tomorrow I will do it.” And the gap is so small that you never feel you are postponing it forever.
33-Tomorrow never comes, it is always today. And this mind which thinks in terms of tomorrow will ALWAYS think in terms of tomorrow. And it never comes, it has never been, it will never be. All that you have is this very moment, so don’t go on postponing. Now we will enter the techniques.
THE INTERPRETATION OF THE 64th TECHNIQUE OF MEDITATION ;-
1-LORD SHIVA REPLIES;-
''At the start of sneezing, during fright, in anxiety, above a chasm, flying in battle, in extreme curiosity, at the beginning of hunger, at the end of hunger, be uninterruptedly aware''.
2-It looks so simple: at the start of sneezing, during fright, in anxiety or before hunger or after hunger, “BE UNINTERRUPTEDLY AWARE.” Many things have to be understood. Very simple acts like sneezing can be used as devices, because howsoever simple they look, they are very complex, and the inner mechanism is a very delicate thing. Whenever you feel that a sneeze is coming become alert, and the sneeze may not come at all. It may simply disappear, because a sneeze is a non-voluntary thing ..unconscious, non-voluntary.
3-You cannot sneeze voluntarily; you cannot “will” it. How can you? How helpless man is! You cannot “will” a single sneeze. Howsoever you may try, you cannot bring it out. A single sneeze ..such a small thing, but you cannot will it. It is non-voluntary; volition is not needed. It does not happen because of your mind; it is because of your total organism(जीव), your total body.
4-And the second thing: when you become alert, when the sneeze is coming ..you cannot bring it, but when it is coming ..if you become alert, it may not come, because you are bringing something new to the process: the alertness. It may disappear, but when the sneeze disappears and you are alert, there is a third thing. First, a sneeze is non-voluntary. You bring in a new thing ... alertness. When the alertness comes, the sneeze may not come. If really you are alert, it will not; it may not happen at all.
5-Then a third thing happens. The energy that was going to be released through a sneeze, where does it move? It moves to your alertness. Suddenly there is a flash, a lightning. You become more alert. The energy, that was going to be thrown by the sneeze moves into alertness. Suddenly you become more alert.
6-In that flash, in that lightning, even enlightenment is possible. That is why it is said that these matters are so simple, they look absurd. Their promise seems to be too much. Just through sneezing, how can one become enlightened? But sneezing is not just sneezing; you are totally involved in it. Whatsoever you do or whatsoever happens to you is a total involvement.
7-Observe again... whenever a sneeze happens, you are totally in it with the whole body, the whole mind. It is not just your nose in which the sneeze is happening; every fiber, every cell of your body is involved in it. A subtle trembling, a subtle wavering goes all over the body, and with it the whole body becomes concentrated. And when the sneeze has happened, the whole body relaxes. But it is difficult to bring alertness to it. If you bring alertness to it, it will not happen, and if it happens you can know that the alertness was not there. That is why you should be alert.
8-“AT THE START OF SNEEZING…”, because if it has started, nothing can be done. The arrow has gone; you cannot change it now. The mechanism has started. The energy is on its way to being released, it cannot be stopped. Can you stop a sneeze in the middle? How can you stop it in the middle? By the time you are ready, it has already happened. You cannot stop it in the middle.
9-Just at the beginning, become alert. The moment you feel the sensation that it is coming, become alert. Close your eyes and be meditative. Bring your total consciousness to the focus just where you are feeling the sensation of an oncoming sneeze. Just at the beginning, remain alert. The sneeze will disappear, and the energy will be transformed into more alertness. And because in the sneeze the whole body is involved, the whole mechanism is involved ..it is a release mechanism and you are alert at this moment ..there will be no mind, there will be no thought, no meditation.
10-In a sneeze, thinking stops. That is why so many people like snuff. It unburdens them, their minds feel more relaxed because for a moment thinking stops. Snuff gives them a glimpse of no-thinking. Through snuff, when the sneeze comes, they are not minds, they become bodies. The head disappears for a single moment, but it feels good.
11-If you become habituated to snuff, it is very difficult to leave it. It is more penetrating a habit than smoking; smoking is nothing before it. It penetrates more deeply, because smoking is conscious and sneezing is unconscious. To leave snuff is more difficult than to leave smoking. And smoking can be changed, substitutes can be found ...but there is no substitute for snuff, because, really, sneezing is a very unique phenomenon in the body.
12-Something is thrown out from the nose and you feel relieved,
And this flash happens .. Because mind is not there. The basic thing is that if the mind is not there and you are alert, you will have the first glimpse of SAMADHI.Thought is the barrier. So if thought disappears
in any way, the thing will happen. But thought must disappear; only then is alertness there.
13-Thought can disappear even in sleep; thought can disappear when you go unconscious; thought can disappear when you take some drug. Thought disappears, but then there is no alertness to be aware of the phenomenon that is hidden behind thought. That is why meditation
is defined as thoughtless consciousness. You can become thoughtless and unconscious; then there is no meaning. You can be conscious with thought; you are already that.
14-Bring these two things together — consciousness and thoughtlessness. When they meet, meditation happens, meditation is born. And you can try with very small things because nothing is really small. Even a sneeze is a cosmic phenomenon. In existence, nothing is great and nothing is small. Even a minute atom can destroy the whole world, and even a sneeze, a very atomic phenomenon, can transform you.
15-So don’t see things as small or big. There is nothing small and nothing big. If you have the penetrating eye, then very small things are vital. Between atoms universes are hidden, and between the universe and an atom you cannot say which is great and which is small. Even a single atom is a universe in itself, and the greatest universe is nothing but atoms. So don’t think in terms of great and small. Just try. Don’t say, “What can happen in a sneeze? I have been sneezing the whole life, and nothing has happened.”
16-Bring in this technique: JUST “AT THE START OF SNEEZING, DURING FRIGHT…”, when you feel afraid and fear enters, become aware and fear will disappear. With alertness, there can be no fear. How can, you be afraid when you are alert? You can be afraid only when you lose alertness. Really, a coward is not a person who is afraid; a coward is a person who is asleep, and a brave man is a person who can bring his alertness to the moments of fear. So fear disappears.
17-In Japan, they train their warriors for alertness. The basic training is for alertness, and everything else is secondary: swordsmanship, archery, everything is secondary. It is known, it is said about the great Zen master Rinzai that he never succeeded .. never succeeded in his archery ..to get to the right point, to the right aim. His arrow always missed; it never reached to the right point.
18-And he is known as one of the greatest archers, so it is asked, “How is Rinzai known as the greatest archer when he never succeeded in any aim and the point was always missed? His arrow never reached to the right point, so how is he known as one of the greatest archers?”
19-The followers of Rinzai say, “It is not the end, it is the beginning. We are not concerned with the arrow reaching to the end, we are concerned with when the arrow starts its journey. We are concerned with Rinzai. When the arrow leaves the bow, he is alert; that is all. It is not the result, that is irrelevant.”
20-One man was a disciple to Rinzai. He was a great archer himself, he never missed his aim, and then he came to Rinzai to learn, so someone said, “To whom are you going to learn? He is not a master; he is not even a disciple. He is a failure, and you are a great master and you are going to Rinzai to learn?”
21-So that archer said, “Yes, because I have succeeded technically. But as far as my consciousness is concerned, I am a failure. He is technically a failure, but as far as his consciousness is concerned he is the archer and the master — because when the arrow leaves he is alert, and that is the
point.”This archer who was a master technically had to learn, for years under Rinzai, and every day he was one hundred percent accurate in his aiming. Rinzai would say, “No, you are a failure. Technically the arrow leaves rightly. But you are not there, you are not alert. You loose it in your sleep.”
22-In Japan they have been training their warriors to be alert first, and everything else is secondary. A warrior is a brave man if he can be alert. And it was felt in the Second World War that you cannot match Japan’s warriors; their bravery is incomparable. From where does it come? Physically they are not so strong, but in consciousness, in alertness, fear cannot enter. They are not afraid, and whenever fear comes they will try Zen methods.
23-This sutra says, “DURING FRIGHT, IN ANXIETY…” When you feel anxious, much anxiety-ridden, try it. What is one to do? What do you ordinarily do when anxiety is there? What do you do? You try to solve it. You try alternatives, and you get more and more into it. You will create a bigger mess because anxiety cannot be solved through thinking. It cannot be dissolved through thinking because thinking itself is a sort of anxiety. So you help it to grow more. Through thinking, you cannot come out of it; you will go deeper into it. This technique says don’t do anything with anxiety. Just be alert...
24-For example, Bokuju, a Zen master lived alone in a cave, all alone, but during the day, or even in the night, he would sometimes say loudly, “Bokuju” ..his own name, and then he would say, “Yes, I am here.” And no one else was there.Then his disciples used to ask him,“Why are you calling 'Bokuju’, your own name, and then saying, `Yes sir, I am here’?”He said,
“Whenever I get into thinking, I have to remember to be alert, and so I call my own name, `Bokuju.’Yes sir, I am here,’ the thinking, the anxiety disappears. 25- ”Then, in his last days, for two or three years, he never called “Bokuju,” his name, and never had to reply,“Yes sir, I am here.”The disciples asked,
“Master, now you never do this.”So he said, “But now Bokuju is always
there. He is ALWAYS there, and there is no need. Before I used to miss him. Sometimes the anxiety would take me, cloud me all over, and Bokuju was not there. So I had to remember `Bokuju,’ and the anxiety would disappear.”
26-So try your name.When you feel deep anxiety, just call and try this. This is a beautiful thing. When you feel deep anxiety, just call but your name ..and then reply to it, “Yes sir, I am here,” and feel the difference. Anxiety will not be there. At least for a single moment you will have a glimpse beyond the clouds, and that glimpse can be deepened. Once you know that if you become alert anxiety is not there, it disappears; you have come to a deep knowing of your own self and the mechanism of inner working.
27-Above a chasm(a deep fissure in the earth's surface), flying in battle, in extreme curiosity, at the beginning of hunger, at the end of hunger, be uninterruptedly aware.”You can use anything. Hunger is there,become
alert. What to do when you feel hunger is there? What has happened? When you feel hunger you never see it as something happening to you. You become the hunger. You feel, “I am hungry.” The real feeling is that “I am hunger,” but you are NOT hunger; you are only conscious of it.
28-It is something happening on the boundary. You are the center, you have become aware of it. It is an object. You remain the subject, you are a witness. You are not hunger; hunger is happening to you. You were there when hunger was not and you will be there when hunger will have gone. 29-So hunger is an accident; it happens to you.Become alert, then
you will not be identified with it. If you feel hunger, become alert that hunger is there. Look at it, encounter it, face it. What will happen? The more you become alert, the farther away will the hunger be felt; the less alert, the nearer. If you are not alert, exactly at the center you will feel, “I am hunger.” If you become alert, hunger is thrown away. Hunger is there, you are here. Hunger is an object, you are a witness.
30-Fasting has been used only because of this, for this technique. Fasting in itself is of no use. If you are not doing this technique with the hunger, fasting is ..just foolish, of no use. Mahavira used fasting with this technique . You can be hungry for months and identified with hunger, feeling that “I am hungry.” It is useless, harmful.
31-There is no need to go on a fast. You are just destructive, and it cannot be of any help.Every day you can feel it, but there are problems. That is why fasting may be helpful.Ordinarily, we stuff ourselves with food
before we feel hunger. In the modern world there is no need to feel hunger. You have a time fixed for your meals, and you take them.
32-You never ask whether the body is feeling hungry or not; at a fixed hour you take your meals. Hunger is not felt. You may say, “No, when it is one o’clock I feel hungry.” That may be a false hunger; you feel it because it is one o’clock, your time. Someday you can play a trick. Tell someone to change the clock. It is ten, and the clock will show that it is eleven. You will feel hunger. Or it is already one hour fast: it is two exactly, and the clock shows one; then you will feel hunger. You look at the clock, and you feel hunger. This is artificial, false, it is not real.
33-So fasting may be helpful. If you fast, then for two or three days you will feel a false hunger. Only after the third or fourth day will real hunger be felt; your body will demand, not the mind. When mind demands, it is false. When the body demands, it is real. And when it is real and you become alert, you become totally different from your body. Hunger is a body phenomenon. Once you can feel that hunger is different from you and you are a witness to it, you have transcended the body.
34-But you can use anything, these are just examples. This technique can be used in many ways; you can devise your own way. But insist on one thing: if you are trying with hunger, then go on at least for three months with hunger. Then only will you be disidentified with your body someday. Don’t change the device every day because a deepening is needed with any technique.
35-So choose anything for three months. Stick to it, apply the technique, go on working with it, and always remember to be aware in the beginning. In the middle it will be very difficult, because once the identity is felt that You are hungry, you cannot change it. You can get changed mentally. You can say, “No, I am not hunger, I am a witness.” That is false. This is the mind talking, this is not a feeling experience. Just try to be aware in the beginning, and, remember, you are not to say that “I am not hunger.” This is how mind can deceive. You can say, “The hunger is there, but I am not hunger. I am not body, I am the BRAHMAN.”
36-You are not to say anything. Whatsoever you say will be false because
you are false.This chanting that “I am not the body” will not help. You go on saying “I am not the body” because you know that you are body. If you really know that you are not the body, what is the use of saying “I am not the body”? There is no use, it will look stupid. Be aware, and then the feeling that “I am not the body” will be there. This will not be a thought, this will be a feeling.
37-This will not be felt in the head, this will be felt all over your being. You will feel the distance ...that the body is far away, that “I am absolutely different.” And there is not even a possibility of mixing both. You cannot. The body is the body; it is matter, and you are consciousness. They can live together, but they never mix. They cannot become mixed.