WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THREE PADS (Devaika,Manusha,Paisachika padas) IN THE ARCHITECTURE OF HIN
ROLE OF TEMPLES;- 07 FACTS;- 1-A Hindu temple is a unification of the idea of Arts, Dharma, Beliefs, Values, Devotion Rituals etc.Temples are consciously constructed to make us families with divinity of god. People visit temples to communicate with gods and offer their prayers. Temples also act as spiritual centers where discourses, meditations, bhajans ,special poojas are often arranged , where people celebrate festivals . 2-In Bhakti school of Hinduism, temples are venues for puja, which is a hospitality ritual, where the deity is the honored, and where devotee calls upon, attends to and connects with the deity. In Hinduism it is recommended that the person may simply perform jap, meditation, or yoga, or introspection in his or her temple or sangams (conﬂuence of rivers), river banks, lakes and seashore, 3-All the cosmic elements that create and sustain life are present in a Hindu temple - from ﬁre to water, from images of nature to deities, from the feminine to the masculine, from the ﬂeeting sounds and incense smells to the eternal nothingness yet universality at the core of the temple . 4-Library of manuscripts – From ancient times temples are also used to store manuscripts as well as spiritual books as a library .Generally all Hindus Visit temple for to perform prayers. But according to Hindu ideology why we need temple as we can perform prayers at our home as well?... 5-In the Indian tradition what is worshipped is Bimba, the reflection or Prathima, the image of god, but not the god itself. Bimba means reflection, like the reflection of moon in a tranquil pool. That reflection is not the moon but an image (prathima) of the moon. In other words, what is worshipped in a temple is an idea, a conception or the mental image of god, translated to a form in stone or metal or wood; but, it is not the god itself. 6-The idea of multiple forms of divinity was in the Vedas. Rig Veda at many places talks in terms of saguna, the supreme divinity with attributes. The aspects of the thirty-three divinities were later condensed to three viz. Agni, the aspect of fire, energy and life on earth; Vayu, the aspect of space, movement and air in the mid-region; and Surya the universal energy and life that sustains and governs all existence, in the heavenly region, the space. This provided the basis for the evolution of the classic Indian trinity, the Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu. 7-The concept of polytheism gave tremendous impetus to all branches of Indian arts, literature and iconography. The polytheism is, in fact, the lifeblood of iconography; for it is only through a divinity with aspects one can represent and worship ones ideal with love, adoration and earnestness. Making an image involves an understanding of its attributes, virtues, powers, characteristics, symbols and its disposition. An image is the visual and concrete form of idealism; the idioms of beauty grace and power nurtured and honed by generations after generations. It is a representation of a community’s collective aspirations. ACCORDING TO SWAMI VIVEKANANDA;- 06 POINTS;- 1-''God is eternal, without any form, omnipresent. To think of Him as possessing any form is blasphemy. But the secret of image worship is that you are trying to develop your vision of Divinity in one thing. 2-Idolatry in India does not mean anything horrible. It is not the mother of harlots. On the other hand it is the attempt of undeveloped minds to grasp high spiritual truths. 3-Man is to become divine by realising the divine. Idols, or temples or churches or books are only the supports, the helps, of his spiritual childhood; but on and on he must progress. 4-It is difficult for people to think of formless and omnipresent God which is why idol worship was introduced. 5-We may worship anything by seeing God in it, if we can forget the idol and see God there. We must not project any image upon God. But we may fill any image with that Life which is God. Only forget the image, and you are right enough---for "out of Him comes everything". He is everything. 6- We may worship a picture as God, but not God as the picture. God in the picture is right, but the picture as God is wrong. God in the image is perfectly right. There is no danger there. This is the real worship of God''. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THREE PADS (Devaika,Manusha,Paisachika padas)IN TEMPLES;- 10 FACTS;- 1-A Hindu temple (Sanskrit: मन्दिर - Mandir, प्रासाद Prasada) is a house of god.It is a space and structure designed to bring human beings and gods together, infused with symbolism to express the ideas and beliefs of Hinduism. 2-A temple functions as a place of transcendence, where man may cross over (do tirtha) from the world of illusion to one of knowledge and truth. 3-The spiritual principles symbolically represented in Hindu temples are given in the ancient Sanskrit texts of India (for example, Vedas, Upanishads), while their structural rules are described in various ancient Sanskrit treatises on architecture (Brhat Samhita, Vastu Sastras). 4-The layout, the motifs, the plan and the building process recite ancient rituals, geometric symbolisms, and reﬂect beliefs and values innate within various schools of Hinduism. 5-A Hindu temple is a spiritual destination for many Hindus (not all), as well as landmarks around which ancient arts,community celebrations and economy ﬂourished. 6-A temple incorporates all elements of Hindu cosmos - presenting the good, the evil and the human, as well as the elements of Hindu sense of cyclic time and the essence of life - symbolically presenting dharma, kama, artha, moksa and karma.A Hindu temple has a Sikhara (Vimana or Spire) that rises symmetrically above the central core of the temple.The temples face sunrise. and this varies with each temple. 7-The underlying principle in a Hindu temple is built around the belief that all things are one, everything is connected. The pilgrim is welcomed through 64-grid or 81-grid mathematically structured spaces, a network of art, pillars with carvings and statues that display and celebrate the four important and necessary principles of human life - the pursuit of artha (prosperity, wealth), the pursuit of kama (pleasure, sex),the pursuit of dharma (virtues, ethical life) and the pursuit of moksha (release, self-knowledge). 9-A Hindu temple is meant to encourage reﬂection, facilitate puriﬁcation of one’s mind, and trigger the process of inner realization within the devotee. The speciﬁc process is left to the devotee’s school of belief. The primary deity of diﬀerent Hindu temples varies to reﬂect this spiritual spectrum. 10-Parama Shayika Mandala ...Hindu Temple 81 padas The 9x9 (81) grid ‘’Parama Shayika’’ layout plan found in large ceremonial Hindu Temples. It is one of many grids used to build Hindu temples. In this structure of symmetry, each concentric layer has signiﬁcance. The outermost layer, Paisachika padas, signify aspects of Asuras and evil; while inner Devika padas signify aspects of Devas and good. In between the good and evil is the concentric layer of Manusha padas signifying human life; All these layers surround Brahma padas, which signiﬁes creative energy and the site for temple’s primary idol for darsana. Finally at the very center of Brahma padas is Grabhgriya (Purusa Space), signifying Universal Principle present in everything and everyone. WHAT IS MANDUKA MANDALA?- 07 FACTS;- 1-Manduka mandala is the most common and sacred Hindu temple format, set on a 8 x 8 grid. This floor plan is common in large temples. 2-The blue squares are Brahma pada, typically where the main and/or largest idol of the temple resides. 3-The white squares surrounding the Brahma pada are Devika (Devaika) padas - the zone where gods (devas) reside. 4-The light green squares at the outermost periphery are Paisachikas padas - the zone of demons, fears, doubts, suffering. On the east edge are always Surya (Sun) and Indra present, who rythmically bring light and hope everyday. 5-The light saffron squares forming the second outer encirclement are Manusha padas - the zone where human beings live and symbolically make choice between good and evil, Devas (gods) and Paisachikas (demons), as they walk / journey towards the core of the temple for a darshan, vision. 6-The deep saffron circle in the center symbolically represents formless Universal One (or Universal Principle, also called Purusa) present in everything and everywhere, in Hindu tradition, the ultimately goal of all Hindu spiritual activity. 7-In Hindu temple architecture, the designs range from simple 1 pada (used for yoga, meditation with self as temple) to 1024 pada or 32x32 grid superstructure temples. WHAT IS PARAMASAAYIKA MANDALA?- 07 FACTS;- 1-Paramasaayika mandala is the second most common Hindu temple format, set on a 9 x 9 grid. These were built as ceremonial temples - by kings and regional communities. They are typically very large. 2-The blue squares are Brahma pada where the main and/or largest idol of the temple resides. 3-The deep saffron square in the center symbolically represents Universal One (or Space/Eternity/Universal Principle/Purusa) in Hindu tradition, understanding which is considered the ultimately goal of all Hindu spiritual activity. In some designs and texts all 9 central squares are considered as Brahma padas. 4-The white squares surrounding the Brahma pada are Devika (Devaika) padas - the zone where gods (devas) reside. 5-The light green squares at the outermost periphery are Paisachikas padas - the zone of demons, fears, suffering. 6-On the east edge of the temple are always present Surya (Sun) and Indra, who rythmically bring light and hope everyday. 7-The light saffron squares forming the third outer encirclement are Manusha padas - the zone where human beings live, walk and symbolically make choice between good and evil, Devas (gods) and Paisachikas (demons), as they walk towards the central core for a darsan , vision. THE ARCHITECTURE /FORMS AND DESIGNS OF HINDU TEMPLES; - 22 FACTS;- 1-Hinduism did not have a particular founder as in Christianity or Islam. It subsumed every phenomenon in the vast territory of India, including even local faiths and tribal gods, so they could even be contradictory to each other. According to Hindu theory, even Buddhism and Jainism are nothing but sects of Hinduism. 2-In the field of architecture too, those of Buddhism and Jainism, which were brought up in the same climate as that of Hinduism, have no great disparities from Hindu architecture, making it possible to say that their structural systems and forms of their components are completely the same. 3-Hindu temple is built around the belief that all things are one, everything is connected. The pilgrim is welcomed through mathematically structured spaces, a network of art, pillars with carvings and statues that display and celebrate the four important and necessary principles of human life - the pursuit of artha (prosperity, wealth), the pursuit of kama (pleasure, sex), the pursuit of dharma (virtues, ethical life) and the pursuit of moksha (release, self-knowledge). 4-The Hindu temple architecture is an open, symmetry driven structure, with many variations, on a square grid of padas, depicting perfect geometric shapes such as circles and squares . 5-A Hindu temple consists of an inner sanctum, the garbha griha or womb-chamber, where the primary Murti or the image of a deity is housed along with Purusa. The garbhagriha is crowned by a tower-like Shikhara, also called the Vimana. The architecture includes an ambulatory(a place for walking) for parikrama (circumambulation), a congregation hall, and sometimes an antechamber(a small room) leading to a main one and porch.The architectural principles of Hindu temples in India are described in Shilpa Shastras and Vastu Sastras. 6-A Hindu temple design follows a geometrical design called vastu-purusha-mandala. The name is a composite Sanskrit word with three of the most important components of the plan. Mandala means circle, Purusha is universal essence at the core of Hindu tradition, while Vastu means the dwelling structure. Vastupurushamandala is a yantra . The design lays out a Hindu temple in a symmetrical, self-repeating structure derived from central beliefs, myths, cardinality and mathematical principles. 7-The four cardinal directions help create the axis of a Hindu temple, around which is formed a perfect square in the space available. The circle of mandala circumscribes the square. 8-The square is considered divine for its perfection and as a symbolic product of knowledge and human thought, while circle is considered earthly, human and observed in everyday life (moon, sun, horizon, water drop, rainbow). Each supports the other. 9-The square is divided into perfect square grids. In large temples, this is often a 8x8 or 64 grid structure. In ceremonial temple superstructures, this is an 81 sub-square grid. The squares are called ‘‘padas’’. The square is symbolic and has Vedic origins from fire altar, Agni. The alignment along cardinal direction, similarly is an extension of Vedic rituals of three fires. This symbolism is also found among Greek and other ancient civilizations, through the gnomon. 10- In Hindu temple manuals, design plans are described with 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81 up to 1024 squares; 1 pada is considered the simplest plan, as a seat for a hermit or devotee to sit and meditate on, do yoga, or make offerings with Vedic fire in front. 11-The second design of 4 padas has a symbolic central core at the diagonal intersection, and is also a meditative layout. The 9 pada design has a sacred surrounded center, and is the template for the smallest temple. Older Hindu temple vastumandalas may use the 9 through 49 pada series, but 64 is considered the most sacred geometric grid in Hindu temples. It is also called Manduka, Bhekapada or Ajira in various ancient Sanskrit texts. 12- Each pada is conceptually assigned to a symbolic element, sometimes in the form of a deity or to a spirit or apasara. The central square(s) of the 64 is dedicated to the Brahman (not to be confused with Brahmin), and are called Brahma padas. 13-In a Hindu temple’s structure of symmetry and concentric squares, each concentric layer has significance. The outermost layer, Paisachika padas, signify aspects of Asuras and evil; the next inner concentric layer is Manusha padas signifying human life; while Devika padas signify aspects of Devas and good. The Manusha padas typically houses the ambulatory. 14-The devotees, as they walk around in clockwise fashion through this ambulatory to complete Parikrama (or Pradakshina), walk between good on inner side and evil on the outer side. In smaller temples, the Paisachika pada is not part of the temple superstructure, but may be on the boundary of the temple or just symbolically represented. 15-The Paisachika padas, Manusha padas and Devika padas surround Brahma padas, which signifies creative energy and serves as the location for temple’s primary idol for darsana. Finally at the very center of Brahma padas is Garbhagruha(Garbha- Centre, gruha- house; literally the center of the house) (Purusa Space), signifying Universal Principle present in everything and everyone. The spire of a Hindu temple, called Shikhara in north India and Vimana in south India, is perfectly aligned above the Brahma pada(s). 16-Beneath the mandala's central square(s) is the space for the formless shapeless all pervasive all connecting Universal Spirit, the Purusha. This space is sometimes referred to as garbha-griya (literally womb house) - a small, perfect square, windowless, enclosed space without ornamentation that represents universal essence. 17-In or near this space is typically a murti (idol). This is the main deity idol, and this varies with each temple. Often it is this idol that gives it a local name, such as Visnu temple, Krishna temple, Rama temple, Narayana temple, Shiva temple, Lakshmi temple, Ganesha temple, Durga temple, Hanuman temple, Surya temple, and others. It is this garbha-griya which devotees seek for ‘‘darsana’’ (literally, a sight of knowledge, or vision 18-Above the vastu-purusha-mandala is a superstructure with a dome called Shikhara in north India, and Vimana in south India, that stretches towards the sky. Sometimes, in makeshift temples, the dome may be replaced with symbolic bamboo with few leaves at the top. The vertical dimension's cupola or dome is designed as a pyramid, conical or other mountain-like shape, once again using principle of concentric circles and squares .Scholars suggest that this shape is inspired by cosmic mountain of Meru or Himalayan Kailasa, the abode of gods according to Vedic mythology. 19-In larger temples, the outer three padas are visually decorated with carvings, paintings or images meant to inspire the devotee. In some temples, these images or wall reliefs may be stories from Hindu Epics, in others they may be Vedic tales about right and wrong or virtues and vice, in some they may be idols of minor or regional deities. 20-The pillars, walls and ceilings typically also have highly ornate carvings or images of the four just and necessary pursuits of life - kama, artha, dharma and moksa. This walk around is called pradakshina. 21-Large temples also have pillared halls called mandapa. One on the east side, serves as the waiting room for pilgrims and devotees. The mandapa may be a separate structure in older temples, but in newer temples this space is integrated into the temple superstructure. 22-Mega temple sites have a main temple surrounded by smaller temples and shrines, but these are still arranged by principles of symmetry, grids and mathematical precision. An important principle found in the layout of Hindu temples is mirroring and repeating fractal-like design structure, each unique yet also repeating the central common principle,which is referred as an organism of repeating cells.Hinduism permitted its artisans ﬂexibility in expression and aesthetic independence. A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE TEMPLE & THE STRUCTURE OF HUMAN BODY;- 06 FACTS;- 1-“Everything is governed by one law. A human being is a microcosmos, i.e. the laws prevailing in the cosmos also operate in the minutest space of the human being.” 2-Garba-griham (main sanctum) is equated with human head; antarala (waiting room/vestibule) is equated with human neck; ardha – mandapam (half-hall) is compared with human chest; maha – mandapam (main hall) is equated with the stomach; flag-post is viewed along with human male organ;and temple gateway tower is viewed along with human feet. 3-The Agama shastras are based in the belief that the divinity can be approached in two ways. It can be viewed as nishkala, formless – absolute; or as sakala having specific aspects. 4-Nishkala is all-pervasive and is neither explicit nor is it visible. It is analogues, as the Agama texts explain, to the oil in the sesame-seed, fire in the fuel, butter in milk, and scent in flower. It is in human as antaryamin, the inner guide. It has no form and is not apprehended by sense organs, which includes mind. 5-Sakala, on the other hand, is explicit energy like the fire that has emerged out of the fuel, oil extracted out of the seed, butter that floated to the surface after churning milk or like the fragrance that spreads and delights all. That energy can manifest itself in different forms and humans can approach those forms through appropriate means. The Agamas recognize that means as the archa / the worship methods ..unique to each form of energy-manifestation or divinity. 6-The rules of Vastu-shastra render beauty, structural stability and quality of spaces by virtue of light, sound and volume management. They also evoke in the devotee an attuning of his person to its structure and ambience. WHAT IS VASTU PURUSHA MANDALA?HOW CAN WE COMPARE WITH TEMPLE? 18 FACTS;- 1-Hindu Temples take their cue from the structure of Human body. The vast Hindu canonical (included in the list of sacred books)literature on Agamic texts, Devalaya Vastu (Temple Vastu astrology) and sacred geography describe the temple as a cosmic man, the ‘Purusha’ (cosmic man). Before we proceed further, let us briefly discuss the concept of the Vastu Purusha Mandala. 2-The faith that Earth is a living organism, throbbing with life and energy; is fundamental to the Vastu Shastra. That living energy is symbolized as a person; he is the Vastu Purusha. The site for the proposed construction is his field; Vastu Purusha Mandala. In fact the Vastu Purusha Mandala, the site plan, is his body; and it is treated as such. 3-His height extends from the South West corner (pitrah) to the North East corner (Agni).The Vastu Purusha Mandala also depicts the origin of the effects on the human body. All symbolisms flow from these visualizations. 4-Purusha means ‘person’ literally and refers to Universal Man. Purusha is the body of god incarnated in the ground of existence, divided within the myriad forms. He is also that fragmented body simultaneously sacrificed for the restoration of unity. 5-Vastu Purusha is associated with the Earth and its movable and immovable basic elements of nature, such as the earth, water, fire, air and space; just as a human being does. The Vastu purusha mandala is in some ways a development of the four pointed or cornered earth mandala having astronomical reference points Further, the Vastu Purusha Mandala is also the cosmos in miniature; and the texts believe “what obtains in a microcosm, obtains in macrocosm too (yatha pinde thatha brahmande).” 6-The science of Vastu is believed as part of the Indian architecture. Vastu Shastra developed during the period of 6000 BC and 3000 BC and the ancient Indian text Mayamatam represents Vastu Purusha as the presiding deity for all land structure meant for temples or houses. 7-Vastu Purusha Mandala is the metaphysical plan of a temple incorporating course of the heavenly bodies and supernatural forces. This Mandala square is divided into (8×8 =64) 64 metaphysical grids / modules or pada for temples. (For dwelling places 9×9=81 metaphysical grids / modules or pada). 8-The vastu-purusha-mandala represents the manifest form of the Cosmic Being; upon which the temple is built and in whom the temple rests. The temple is situated in Him, comes from Him, and is a manifestation of Him. The vastu-purusha-mandala is both the body of the Cosmic Being and a bodily device by which those who have the requisite knowledge attain the best results in temple building. 9-The Vastu Purusha is visualized as lying with his face and stomach touching the ground; to suggest as if he is carrying the weight of the structure. His head is at North East (ishanya) and his legs are at the South West corner (nairutya). The South West corner (nairutya) where the Vastu Purusha has his legs corresponds to the Muladhara chakra and denotes the earth principle. 10-Just as the legs support the weight of the body, the base (adhistana) for the muladhara should be stable and strong. Accordingly, the South West portion of the building is the load bearing area; and should be strong enough to support heavy weights. Just as the feet are warm, the South West cell represents warmth and heat; even according to the atmospheric cycles the South West region receives comparatively more heat. 11-Svadhistana chakra is in the lower stomach region near the kidneys. It is related to water principle (apa).On the Vastu Purusha Mandala; it is to the South and to the West .Therefore the wet areas like bathroom etc are recommended in the south or in the west portions of the building. It is for sewerage (utsarjana). 12-Manipura Chakra is at the navel; and relates to energy or fire or tejas. While in the womb of the mother, the fetus is fed with the essence of food and energy through the umbilical chord connected with its navel. The Vastu Purusha Mandala shows Brahma at the navel of the Vastu Purusha. Further, the lotus is the base (Adhistana) of Brahma.Thus navel connects Brahman with Jiva or panda or life. It is left open and unoccupied. The central portion of the building is to be kept open. It is believed that Vastu Purusha breaths through this open area. 13-Anahata chakra is near the heart. It is related to vayu air regulated by lungs. The lung region of the Vastu Purusha should be airy. 14-Vishuddaha chakra is near the throat from where the sounds come out and reverberate in space. This region represents Space (Akasha).The word OM is uttered through throat. The echo of that sound vibrates in the hallow of the bone-box of the head and in the space in brain. The head of Vastu Purusha is in the North East corner (Ishanya). The ajna chakra is between the eyebrows. .This direction is related to open spaces (akasha). Atmospherically, North East is cooler; and so should be ones head. The puja room Devagraha is recommended in the North east portion of the house. 15-The limbs of Vastu Purusha, other than the above are also related to the construction of the building. Liver (yakrt) is towards South East. The cooking area is recommended in South East, because it is related to Agni. The rays of sun reach here first and cleanse the atmosphere. 16-The North West, vayuvya, is presided over by air vayu. The Organs like spleen, rectum of the Vastu Purusha fall in this portion. The store room is recommended here; perhaps because the spleen in the body does the work of storing and restoring blood. 17-Directions in Hindu tradition are called as Disa, or Dik. There are four primary directions and a total of 10 directions: East, South-East (Agneya), West, North-West (Vayavya), North, North-East (Isanya), South, South-West (Nauritya), Zenith (Urdhva), Nadir (Adho). There are ‘Guardians of the Directions’ (Dikpala or Dasa-dikpala) who rule the specific directions of space. 17-A-GUARDIANS OF DIRECTION;-
09 P01NTS;- .1. North east Direction ruled by Ishanya Shiva (Load of Water) influences balanced thinking 2. East Direction ruled by Indra (Load of Solar) – influences long life 3. South east Direction ruled by Agneya or Agni (Load of Fire) (Energy Generating) influences comfort, peace, prosperity and progeny. 4. South Direction ruled by Yama (Lord of Death or Lord of Death / Damage) yields nothing but mourning, depression and pain. If this direction used properly safeguards from envy of others and cast of all evils. 5.West Direction ruled by Varuna (Load of Water / Lord of Rain) (Neptune) influences reputation, fame, prosperity and success. 6. South west Direction ruled by Nairitya – Deity Lord (Demon) Nairitya influences Protection, strength and stability 7. North west Direction ruled by Vayu or Vayavya (Load of Wind) influences peace 8. North (Kuber) – Deity Lord Kuber or Lord of Wealth (Finance) and keeper of riches influences good strength, better business sufficient in flow of money, education, industrial growth etc. 9. Center ruled by Lord Brahma (Creator of Universe) 18-The ‘Aham Brahmasmi’ (“I am Brahman. I am part of the Universe.”) is the great sayings (Mahavakya) mentioned in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad of Yajur Veda. The meaning is that ‘Whatever is in the Universe, is present in me’ (and ‘whatever is in me, is part of the Universe’). Indian temples represents the macrocosm of the universe and the structure of the human body represents the microcosm. Veda also says “Yatha Pinde tatha Brahmande”. It means what is going on within human being is the same as what is going on in universe. THE CHAKRAS & THE TEMPLE;- The concept of chakra features in tantric and yogic traditions of Hinduism. In Yoga, Kundalini Shakti means the ‘coiled power.’ It is compared to a serpent that lies coiled while resting or sleeping. Chakras are vital energy points (Kundalini energy) in the human anatomy, i.e. breath channels, or nadis, and the winds (vayus), that are centres of life force (prana), or vital energy. They include: 1. Muladhara, 2. Swadhisthana, 3. Manipura or manipuraka, 4. Anahata, Anahata-puri, or padma-sundara, 5. Vishuddha or Vishuddhi, 6. Ajna and 7. Sahasrara. 07 FACTS;- 1. Muladhara or root chakra located at the base of the spine in the coccygeal region (governs senses). According to Vastu Mandala South-West (Nauritya) – Deity Lord (Demon) Nauritya influences protection, strength and stability. 2. Swadhisthana or Adhishthana at the lower stomach region or the sacrum of the human. Vastu direction West (Varuna) – Lord Varuna (Neptune) Lord of Water or Rain. Formation of temple tank or water bodies in South or West will influence reputation, fame, prosperity and success. 3. Manipura or Manipuraka at the digestive glands (governs digestion through pancreas and adrenal glands) of the human. Digestion involves energy of fire. Female bears navel, womb and umbilical chord. According to Vastu Mandala Lord Brahma or Lord of Creation seated on lotus flower base (Adishtana) rules this point. Cosmic Brahma bridges the cosmic human navel or life. If this point in temple should be left open, the vital energy flows and the wholeness resides with blessings and protection. 4. Anahata, Anahata-puri, or Padma-sundara located at chest (governs lungs, immune system – thymus of human being). As per Vastu Mandala Lord Vayu or Lord of Wind rules this point. This grid relates to air and regulation of air. If this grid is allowed to flow air and the peace and comfort resides. 5. Vishuddha or Vishuddhi located at the throat i.e., thyroid glands (governs sound, speech communication and sence of security of human being). Mantras chanted by cosmic humanbeing bridges with cosmic Ishanya. Comic Ishanya is represented in OM, a Pranava Mantra form. According to Vastu Mandala Lord Shiva in Ishanya form rules this grid and represents the space or Akasha. Mantras chanted here will reverberate in space. If left free from obstacles and less occupation or weight, there will be balanced power. 6. Ajna or third eye located at pineal glands or between the eye brows; the two side nadis ‘Ida’ (yoga) and ‘Pingala’ are terminating and merge with the central channel ‘Sushumna’ (governs higher and lower selves and trusting inner guidance of human being). As per Vastu Mandala this direction is also related to open spaces (‘Akasha’) and to the North East corner (Ishanya). The sanctum (Garbagriha or womb chamber) is recommended at this grid, the seat of the divinity. 7. Sahasrara or pure consciousness chakra located at the crown of the head – symbolized by a lotus with one thousand multi-coloured petals. According to Vastu Mandala Anja is the sanctum. The vimanam and shikara forms the space element and the currents of life ascends through the ‘Brahma-randra shila’ or stone slab placed at ‘griva’ (neck)of the vimana. The finial of the shikara of the vimanam is the grid at which unseen sahasrara located.