WHAT ARE THE THREE PAINS(-Adhidaihika --Adhibhautika, Adhidaivika ) IN SANKHYA YOGA PHILOSOPHY ---
In a basic text ---SANKHYA YOGA philosophy--- the author/Sage Kapila talks about three sources of pain with which we create with our own suffering. He says in Sutra 22 : --- Trividham dukham (three kinds of pain/suffering). These three are caused by different mechanisms... ‘ Transliterated as: -
Adhi’ means “related to”, hence the first group adhyatman relates to suffering caused by our own self; Adhibutam is suffering by the elemental world, i.e. the world outside us, whether people or situations. The third source is Adhidaivam, suffering caused by powers beyond our ken; i.e. divine powers.---- LITERAL MEANING;- 1-Adhidaihika literally means pertaining to the ātma or the body (and the mind). 1-Adhibhautika--literally means pertaining to the bhuta or living beings. 2-Adhidaivika literally means pertaining to the daiva or fate, unseen forces and gods. WHAT IS THE MEANING OF THREE PAINS ?---
03 FACTS;- Sorrow and suffering (duhkha, tāpa) are inevitable part of life. Knowledge regarding their origin, causes and even categorization helps one to minimize their effect, but can't eradicate them. The scriptures usually call them ‘tāpatraya,’ (‘the three miseries.’) 1-Adhidaihika or tāpa is that which is caused by bodily suffering and mental anguish. Hereditary diseases like leprosy, disabilities like blindness or lameness and diseases caused by the violation of the rules of health and sanitation are classed under this. The mental agony caused by worries and anxieties, attachment and aversion, also comes under this group. 2-The ādhibhautika duhkha or tāpa is that which is caused by other bhutas or living beings, like wild animals, snakes, or enemies. Some of these, like hereditary diseases or physical disabilities cannot be got rid of. Hence they must be endured. Some diseases--- caused by change of seasons or the machinations of enemies ----can be countered by taking appropriate precautions. 3-The ādhidaivika duhka or tāpa is that which is caused by daiva. The word daiva includes the power of time, nature and the unseen hand or fate. Diseases caused by the changing seasons, misery caused by the elemental forces like floods and fire, suffering caused by black magic or disembodied spirits or gods who are displeased, natural tribulations due to hunger, thirst and old-age belongs to this group. However, raising the mind to the level of the spirit, thus transcending the limitations imposed by the body-mind complex, is the best solution to offset the effects of tāpatraya. RELATION OF THREE PAINS & CHAKRAS;-
05 FACTS;- In tantra, these three terms refer to the chakras. Specifically,------ 1-Adhibhautika--- refers to the mundane or terrestrial sphere of action, and the plane of accomplishments of the lower three chakras, or psychic centers of power – the Mulādhāra, Svādhişţhāna, and the Manipura. 2-Adhidaivika refers to the the celestial or astral plane, the world of gods and goddesses beyond both the physical and the spiritual. The plane of operation of the three minor chakras or sub-centers in the head, called Golāta, Lalāta, and Lālana. 3-Adhidaihika refers to the plane of the upper three chakras or centers of power, the Anāhata, Visuddha, and Ājñā
4-Any individual living being can become the sun-god or even Brahmā or any other god in the upper planetary system by a higher grade of pious work, and similarly one becomes controlled by the higher demigods by lower grades of fruitive activities. So every individual living entity is subject to the supreme control of the Paramātmā, who puts everyone in different positions of the controller and the controlled.That which distinguishes the controller and controlled, i.e. the material body, is called the adhibhautic puruṣa. The body is sometimes called puruṣa, as confirmed in the Vedas...
5-'THREE PAINS 'ACCORDING TO SRIMAD BHAGAVATAM;---
As such, before the creation or manifestation of the material cosmic world, the Lord exists as total energy (mahā-samaṣṭi), and thus desiring Himself to be diffused to many, He expands Himself further into multitotal energy (samaṣṭi). From the multitotal energy He further expands Himself into individuals in three dimensions, namely adhyātmic, adhidaivic and adhibhautic, as explained (vyaṣṭi). As such, the whole creation and the creative energies are nondifferent and different simultaneously.
5-1-Because everything is an emanation from Him (the Mahā-samaṣṭi), nothing of the cosmic energies is different from Him; but all such expanded energies have specific functions and display as designed by the Lord, and therefore they are simultaneously different from the Lord. The living entities are also similar energy (marginal potency) of the Lord, and thus they are simultaneously one with and different from Him.
5-2-Everyone who is conditioned by material existence—whether he be a man or beast or demigod or bird—must suffer from ādhyātmika (bodily or mental) pains, ādhibhautika pains (those offered by living creatures), and ādhidaivika pains (those due to supernatural disturbances). His happiness is nothing but a hard struggle to get free from the miseries of conditional life. But there is only one way he can be rescued, and that is by accepting the shelter of the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
5-3-The so-called happy materialistic person is constantly having to endure the threefold miseries of life, called adhidaivika, adhyātmika and adhibhautika. Actually no one can counteract these threefold miseries. All three may assail one at one time, or one misery may be absent and the other present. Thus the living entity is full of anxiety, fearing misery from one side or the other. The conditioned soul must be disturbed by at least one of these three miseries. There is no escape.
WHAT ARE THE ANTIDOTES OF THREE PAINS ?- Of these three kinds of pains,Adhidaihika relates to mental pain that is generated within the person and hence can only be cured or removed by internal means: We need to look at how our mind creates our subjective view of the world. Through our sense organs we collect information, which is then compared to previously stored information, our memory bank. This data-bank is the root of interpretation of any experience and sensation. With this very same mechanism we create our own suffering. We are responsible for creating the mental pains of desire, passion, jealousy, greed, fear, depression. If we create them – we can un-create them…. There are antidotes ----- Let’s look at these one by one.These antidotes helps us directly to gain peace and stability. THE FACTS OF SEVEN ANTIDOTES;--- ANTIDOTE ONE;-- 1-1The antidote to PASSION------ is control”. Desire and Passion are very strong emotions. The life-sap energy is rising strongly, like the sap(watery liquid) in a tree. This wristing life-sap (Prana) triggers strong emotions. The emotions themselves are due to chemical reactions, the chemical released by the different glands involved, last only a short time, ..... 1-2-For example with anger it lasts 90 seconds…. Not even two minutes, but what happens is, that in that time our mind gets involved. The situation at that moment reminds us of something previously experienced/felt or thought – and we attach to that past memory. Our pain comes from “living in the Past!” 1-3-Passion and desire rises but getting attached to them-causes the problem. We see an ice-cream we want an ice-cream, because we remember the pleasure of the taste --on a previous occasion. Given the opportunity to eat ice-cream-- repeatedly,,, we develop a passion, a desire…an attachment, an addiction for Ice-cream! So the origin of passion and desire, is natural and part of life, but we cultivate it and then it becomes a habitual reaction, we can call it an addiction. We have these personal addictions or passions for all sorts of things – from the desire for a cup of coffee, to the desire of a beautiful home, to a beautiful girl/boy – to the desire for the next emotional trip, the next emotional ‘out-burst’ or its consequence (which assures us people’s attention). 1-4-We feel good when we get the attention- we suffer if we don’t. One of the most common addiction are cigarettes (certainly in many cultures). There is an example where a man comes to a great Master and asks: “Please help me to give up smoking, I have such a desire for cigarettes it is getting a health hazard.” The wise One answered: “ when you started to smoke, did you ask my permission?” “NO, of course not, I just did it, then it became a habit” The wise one continued: “You started out of your own will, now use your own will to stop.” 1-5-This is exactly what is advocated... We can only overcome the passions and desires that give us endless suffering, by will-power; by controlling ourselves; by self-discipline. No one else can free us from the suffering caused by passions and desires, except ourselves. We have to learn control and self-discipline! Without it-- no end ofsuffering in life; and no progress on the spiritual path! ANTIDOTE TWO;--- 2-1-The antidote to ANGER is compassion ...Anger is a result of un-fulfilled desire. The very life-sap--- we talked about earlier, that very rising energy – gets frustrated on its path and has to go somewhere. Depending on our personality type the way of this ‘out-let’ differs, hence anger expresses in various ways. 2-2-The world and its people are manifestations of five types of energy we call Mahabhutas. The diversity of forms comes because of the mixture of these; one Element is dominating the character of the thing or person. In respect to humans we call this our constitutional Element. 2-3-If our constitutional Element is Space, we are thus dominated by that energy –frequency which traditions across the world call “Space” (Wood/Nature). In this context the frustration of rising life-sap comes out as anger. It bursts out, trying to find a different, often creative expression. 2-4- If we are dominated by Air, the frustration turns into sarcasm, disdain against others and self-loathing to oneself.. 2-5- If we are dominated by Fire, the frustration eventually boils up into violent outbursts, even aggression and thus becomes dangerous to self and others. 2-6- If we are dominated by the Water Element, anger expresses by withdrawal, depression, eventually paranoia and even suicide. 2-7- If we are dominated by the Earth Element, anger expresses with a burst (like throwing a plate, stamping the foot…)and then having released the pent up energy settles back quickly to normal flow. All these ways of expressing anger can be healed by cultivating compassion, for oneself-and others. Think how you can cultivate compassion! ANTIDOTE THREE;--- 3-1-The antidote to ATTACHMENT is self-analysis We cling to our body, its roles, its habits and its experiences. With this attachment we are closing ourselves of to new experiences, to growth and instead permanently repeat old patterns, old desires creating attachment. These attachments can be good or bad…but they close-circuit our ability to grow and progress. 3-2-And of course there is the attachment to possession and things, once we gained them we fear loosing them and again we create a cycle of suffering. To break these cycles we have to understand how we create the world of projection and illusions... 3-3-The Tattva Samasa ---“A Compendium of the Principles of Nature”deals with this analysis of how the world; how we, came into being the unique composition that we are. Applying this to ourselves, inquiring into who I am…. is finding out, that my body is Nothing but bones, a pile of dying cells, mucus, phlegm and excrement.. .. 3-4- Furthermore our body is a burial ground for countless microbes ; our mental activity is nothing but repeat ions (group of atoms) /regurgitations( to throw or pour back or out from or as if from a cavity) of past bits of information and emotions that have no relevance to the Now. In 50 years nobody will remember us, or what ever important thing we have done in this life will surely be forgotten….We are nothing….once we start seeing that , how can we get attached to this body or this personality? We cannot! So the antidote for attachment is self- inquiry! ANTIDOTE FOUR;-- 4-1-The antidote to FEAR is wisdom about the true nature of categories (evolutes) We are afraid…we are all afraid in one way or another. Fear is a habit of our mind! Our mind as you know understands the world by the data it has accumulated in its mental files; things it doesn’t know about – it is afraid off. What will happen if…? Fear of the unknown is behind all fears…even the fear of death. We have no experience of death in or filing cabinet hence we are afraid. 4-2-Those people who had “Near death-experiences” are not afraid of death; their mind has a file with which to understand. Actually , we all can have a file with which to understand! Kapila “spent ages” to tell us about the true nature of ourselves, and how it developed from the different categories/principles that make up the apparent world (dimension). If you contemplate these, if you extract the wisdom of it, fear of the unknown is lost-because you KNOW! There is no more reason to fear. Look at your personal fear, and inquire who is afraid? ANTIDOTE FIVE;-- 5-1-The antidote to JEALOUSY is generosity and magnanimity( the virtue of being great of mind and heart). Jealousy is born out of extreme attachment to one particular thing. As a child we want a biscuit, and when don’t get it, we stamp our foot. Then our brother comes in and mother gives him a biscuit and we are furious…why not me ? It should be mine! Mother might not have given us the biscuits for a good reason – we don’t know the reason! Jealousy is the most childish emotion. 5-2- We are jealous because the teacher looked at someone else…not me; gave someone else a chocolate, not me ; a friend has got SOMETHING …why not me? We do not know the reason, why things are, the way they are! Why we have not been given what we desire. Jealousy comes from imagined neediness… 5-3-I imagine I need/want! Do we really need? We imagine we do and we think there is not enough; we imagine we will go short! Realize that there are enough biscuits in the world and we will get what we need, even if it is not what “I think –I need”! This is the trouble, we project our needs with our mind. So to see through these projections is the first step. There is enough food, there is enough of everything on this world, but if we imagine we need… and hoard the things, we think we need – we actually take things away from others! What is it you really need – think! Realize nothing in this world is MINE! 5-4- All that is given is given by grace; and there is plenty for everyone. Things are only scarce if I hold on greedily; if I am unwilling to share. What is it that you think life owes you and others have? The cure for such perversion of thinking is to be generous, to give freely. There is enough and each gets what life intends to give… ANTIDOTE SIX;--- 6-1- The antidote to depression is non-attachment Depression has its root in a similar notion, I am not getting what I want or think I need. No-one is there for me and no one gives me what I need! Ask yourself, what is it that I need? Again realize that no one on this entire globe owes you anything! Do the flowers think “the sky owes me Water” ? 6-2- We exist because of divine Grace, trust that, that very grace will give you what is appropriate for you. Who are we, who are you to demand anything from others, or even from the divine? The divine is within you as you! It has given you everything already. But you are attached to the outer form and therefore you wine. 6-3-Cultivate non-attachment to your wants and wishes, cultivate discrimination and learn to be appreciative of what you have got. What is it, that makes you depressed? Inquire into your self – and what your wants are, then go one step further and see who is the One that wants? Use any problem as an opportunity to learn…to grow! ANTIDOTE SEVEN;-- 7-1-PHYSICAL PAIN...... …the antidote is balancing the humours... Physical Pain happens; it’s a reaction of the nerves to alarm us, that there is something out of balance. So inquire what is out of balance in me? Where are my imbalances which cause my manifest body to express its dis-ease? Where are there blocks in my energy-system, so that life-sap can’t flow properly; fluids, mucus, flesh are disturbed? 7-2- Furthermore how can I live in such a way, that I balance the energies so as to be happy and at peace? Within a balanced body- mind – spirit, pain might still occur but you will not suffer, because the mind will not allow itself to be attached to the pain! 7-3-Then the next field/group of suffering is addressed: adhibautika: it relates to suffering caused through the agency of other beings. OK, we get hurt by microbes, people, animals etc. what is the antidote to that? It helps to understanding that all Beings are here to learn, just like you and me. All beings have lessons to learn in the school of life, we are all in a helix of evolution and involution ; we are all bound by some karma we have to work off. 7-4- One could say, we are all in the same boat! Remember you are not a separate being, we live in communion with other beings ; hence if you get bothered by their behavior and their ways disturb you, go back to cultivating right understanding and compassion. 7-5- Patanjali gives in his Sutras a very clear directive of how to deal with other people: (Yoga Sutras; Sutra 33). By cultivating friendliness (maitri) towards the happy, compassion (karuna) towards the unhappy, delight (mudita) in the virtuous and disregard (upeksha) towards the wicked. This sutra offers help for most circumstances we meet in ordinary life, that involve others. It tells us how to behave without getting worried/hurt and thus maintain peace of mind. 7-6-Every situation we encounter with people, can be boiled down to these four simple categories: there will be meetings with people who are ‘on the same wavelength’ – with these we can simply share and be friends. There will be people, happy, wise and virtuous from whom to learn – in these we should delight, show them respects and reverence. Then there will be situations with people who are unhappy/miserable/in need – – to these we should be compassionate, help them. 7-7-The last one-- there will be the wicked or un-righteous – towards them we should simply be indifferent without condemning them. Walking the spiritual path is a full-time occupation and following these guidelines will assure us equipoise while walking it. 7-8-Finally the last source of suffering is called adhidaivaka: it is that suffering which is related to the agency of natural forces, the conscious powers of the subtler world. There is only one way to deal with suffering caused by natural sources or divine intervention: Surrender, i.e. Ishwara pranidhana; with it we offer all actions to the Highest, not getting entangled in doer-ship (see what I have done!), knowing, that everything ultimately is done by HIM/HER, through HIM/HER. It means all sense of gain or loss for the ego is erased. Offering all emotions and actions to the Lord brings an attitude that life is nothing but a gift of the Lord; this leaves no place for vanity or arrogance – or indeed impressions on the mind. This is the Supreme spiritual practice! ..........SHIVOHAM................