WHAT IS THE FOURFOLD SADHANA OF ADI SHANKARA ?IS IT ESSENTIAL TO GET SUCCESS IN BOTH EMBLEM ( Microc
THE FOURFOLD SADHANA OF ADI SHANKARA;-
FOURFOLD Sadhana of the student in the path
of Jnana Yoga consists of; -
1-Viveka 2-, Vairagya, ( Renunciation) 3-Shadshampat or sixfold virtues As----- 1-Shama 2-Dama 3-Uprati 4-Titiksha 5-Sraddha 6-Samadhana 4-Mumukshutva or strong yearning ( to feel a powerful desire for something) for liberation. WHAT IS VIVEKA ?--- Viveka dawns in a man, through the grace of God, who has done virtuous actions in his previous births as offerings unto the Lord without expectation of fruits and without egoism. Viveka is the discrimination between the real and the unreal, the permanent and the non-permanent, Atman and Anatma. WHAT IS VAIRAGYAY?--
03 FACTS;-- 1-We must first develop Viveka or discrimination between the real and the unreal and Vairagya or dispassion for the enjoyment of objects herein and hereafter. Then only you will have success in the practice of Sama.
2-Vairagya born of Viveka only will be of a lasting nature. Such a Vairagya only will be helpful to you in your spiritual practices.
3-Karana Vairagya due to loss of property of death of wife or son will be temporary. It will be of no use to you. It is volatile( liable to change rapidly and unpredictably, especially for the worse). like ammonia. WHAT IS SHAM ?--
03 FACTS;-- 1-Shama is serenity of mind produced by the constant eradication of Vasanas or desires. Whenever desires crop up in your mind do not try to fulfil them. Reject them through discrimination, right enquiry and dispassion.
2-You will get tranquillity of mind and mental strength by constant practice. The mind is thinned out. The mind is checked directly from wandering. Its out-going tendencies are curbed. 3-If the desires are eradicated, the thoughts also will die by themselves. The mind is detached from the manifold sense objects by continually observing their defects and is fixed on Brahma. In the practice of Shama, the five Jnana-Indriyas or organs of knowledge, viz., ear, skin, eye, tongue and nose are also controlled. WHAT IS DAMA ?---
03 FACTS;-- 1-Dama is the control of the external organs, i.e., the organs of action or the five Karma-Indriyas, viz., organ of speech, hands, feet, genitals and the anus and the external instruments, the organs are withdrawn and fixed in their respective centres. 2-The eyes run outside to see a beautiful object. If you at once withdraw the eyes from that object, it is called Dama. You should restrain the other Indriyas also by the practice of Dama. 3-Some say, Practice of Dama is not necessary. It is included in Shama. The Indriyas cannot work independently. They can work only in conjunction with the mind. If the mind is checked, the Indriyas will come under control automatically. IS DAMA INCLUDED IN SHAMA?--
04 FACTS;-- 1-The mind will come under control very easily if Dama also is practised. It is a double attack on the enemy from within and without. He is crushed or subdued soon. If the front and back doors are closed simultaneously, the enemy is caught quite readily. There is no escape for him on any side. 2-By practice of Dama you do not allow either the Indriyas or the mind to come in contact with the objects. You do not allow the mind to come through the external instrument, viz., the eye, to assume the form of the object.
3-In neophytes the mind never remains self-centred despite rigorous practice of Sama. It tries to run outside towards external objects. If Dama is also practised, it will be of immense help to curb the mind efficiently.
4-If you tie the hands of a mischievous boy, he tries to do mischief with the feet. If his feet, also are tied he keeps quiet. Sama corresponds to the tying of the hands and Dama to the tying of the feet. Therefore the practice of Dama is also necessary. IS THERE ANY CO-RELATION BETWEEN DAMA & PRATYAHARA ?--
03 FACTS;-- 1-Dama is a practice of a student of Jnana Yoga. Pratyahara corresponds to the practice of Dama. Pratyahara is the practice of a Raja Yogi. In the former it follows the practice of Shama; in the latter it follows the practice of Pranayama.
2-In the former the Indriyas are withdrawn by calming or restraining the mind; in the latter the Indriyas are withdrawn by restraining the Prana. The Indriyas can be withdrawn more effectively by the process of double withdrawal, by withdrawing the mind and the Prana at the same time.
3-It is the mind that moves the Indriyas. It is the Prana that vivifies or energises or galvanises( to cover metal with zinc or a zinc alloy to protect it from rust ) the Indriyas. Shama and Dama are strictly speaking Raja Yogic practices. WHAT IS UPRATI ?---
05 FACTS;-- 1-Now we come to the practice of Uparati. Some define Uparati as renunciation of all works and taking up Sannyasa. Uparati follows the practice of Shama and Dama. Uparati is self-withdrawal. It consists in the mind-function ceasing to act by means of external objects.
2-Uparati is extreme abstention( a formal refusal ). It is the turning of the mind from the objects of enjoyment.The mind of the student who is established in Uparati will never be agitated even a bit when he sees a beautiful object. There will be no attraction. He will have the same feeling which he experiences when he sees a opposite gender as when he looks at a trees or a log of wood.
3-When he looks at delicious fruits or palatable dishes, he will not be tempted. He will have no craving for them. He will have no craving for any particular object or dish. He will never say, I want such and such a preparation for my food. He will be satisfied with anything that is placed before him. 4-This is due to the strength of mind he has developed by the practice of Viveka, Vairagya, Sama and Dama. Further the mind is experiencing a wonderful calmness and transcendental spiritual bliss by the above practices. It does not want these little, illusory pleasures. If you have got sugar-candy, your mind will never run after black sugar.
5-You can wean(To detach ) the mind from the object to which it is attached by training it to taste a superior kind of bliss. If you give cotton-seed extract to a bull or a cow, it will not run towards dry grass or hay. Mind is like the bull. Note--Those who practise Brahmacharya must be fully conversant with the technique of Sama, Dama and Uparati. Then only they will be established in the practice of celibacy. WHAT IS TITIKSHA ?-- Titiksha is the power of endurance. A Titikshu is able to bear pain, insult, heat and cold. He does not care to redress them. He is free from anxiety. He does not lament on this score. WHAT IS SHRADDHA & SAMADHANA ?----
04 FACTS;-- 1-Shraddha is unshakable faith in the existence of Brahman, in the teachings of Guru and scriptures, and faith in one's own Self. If any one possesses these qualifications he will get Samadhana or one-pointedness of mind and burning desire for liberation. The mind will move naturally towards the inner Self always.
2-A sadhakt should now approach a Brahma-Srotri, Brahmanishtha Guru, hear the Srutis, reflect and meditate on the significance of the Tat Tvam Asi ( COMING POST )Mahavakya constantly. He will attain Self-realisation or Atma-Sakshatkara. 3-If you have Viveka, Vairagya will come by itself. If you possess Viveka and Vairagya, Shama will dawn by itself. If you are endowed with Viveka, Vairagya and Sama, Dama will come by itself. If you have Shama and Dama, Uparati will come by itself.
4-If you have all these qualifications, Titiksha, Sraddha and Samadhana or one-pointedness will come by themselves. If you possess Viveka, Vairagya, Sama, Dama, Uparati, Sraddha and Samadhana, Mumukshutva or burning desire for liberation will manifest by itself. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE VISION OF A JNANI & WORLDLY MAN ?--
03 FACTS;-- 1-Even a Jivanmukta or a liberated sage will move the eyes towards the objects through the force of habit. But he can withdraw them completely and make them mere empty sockets ,if he wills. He sees the whole world within himself.When he sees a female, he does not see her outside himself. He feels that the woman is his own self. He has no lusty idea. There is no evil thoughts in his mind.He has no sensual attraction for her.
2- Whereas a worldly man sees the female ;he entertains lustful thoughts. He has no idea of Self. He is attracted towards her. This is the difference between the vision of a Jnani and a worldly man. There is no harm in looking at female but you must not entertain evil thoughts. 3-Feel that women are manifestations of Mother Kali. Feel that the beauty of the woman is the beauty of the Lord. Feel that all forms are images of the Lord. Your mind will be elevated at once. SHOULD SADHANA CHATUSTHAYA BE PRACTICED ONE BY ONE?---