WHAT ARE THE SIX SCHOOLS OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHY ?
HOW TO DEFINE VEDAS ?--
1-When the need for food, clothing and shelter were fulfilled and other needs reasonably met and the struggle for life was won over, questions rose in the minds of her people: Who am I? Why am I here? What is the purpose of my life? What is mind? How do we experience pleasures of life? Why pain? How do we overcome pain? What happens after death? Who or what is God? The result of inquiry into these questions resulted in ‘ darshanas’ or the Indian systems of Philosophy.
2-The ageless and dateless Vedas, especially the exalted hymns of the Rig Veda, have long been esteemed as the direct expression of what gods and divine seers, rishis or immortal sages, saw when they peered into the imperishable center of Being which is also the origin of the entire cosmos.
HOW TO DEFINE UPANISHADS?--
The Upanishads (from upa, ni and sad, meaning “to sit down near” a sage or guru), included in the Vedas, constitute the highest transmission of the fruits of illumination attained by these rishis.
2-Often cast in the form of memorable dialogues between spiritual teachers and disciples, they represent rich glimpses of truth, not pieced together from disparate intellectual insights, but as they are at once revealed to the divine eye, divya chakshu, which looks into the core of Reality, freely intimated in idioms, metaphors and mantras suited to the awakening consciousness and spiritual potentials of diverse disciples.
WHAT ARE DARSHANAS ?-
1-Darshanas are schools of philosophy based on the Vedas. They are part of the six scriptures of the Hindus, the other five being Shrutis, Smritis, Itihasas, Puranas, and Agamas.
2-While the first four are intuitional, and the fifth inspirational and emotional, the Darshanas are the intellectual sections of the Hindu writings. The Darshana literature is philosophical in nature and meant for the erudite scholars who are endowed with acumen, understanding, and intellect.
3-While the Itihasas, Puranas, and Agamas are meant for the masses and appeal to the heart, the Darshanas appeal to the intellect.
4-The Indian mystics looked within themselves to find the answers to these questions. They were guided instinctively to go within themselves and not seek answers outside.
5-They intuitively experienced the answers to the questions regarding goals of life and Divinity in a very clear and logical manner. They were lead to see the truth and hence their thoughts were called ‘darshanas’ meaning ‘ vision’ or self realization. These illuminating thoughts of the Rishis or Seers were called the darshanas.
H0W IS HINDU PHILOSOPHY CLASSIFIED ?-
1-Hindu philosophy has six divisions—Shad-Darsana—the six Darshanas or ways of seeing things, usually called the six systems or schools of thought.
2-The six divisions of philosophy are the instruments of demonstrating Truth. Each school has interpreted, assimilated and correlated the various parts of the Vedas in its own way. Each system has its Sutrakara, i.e., the one great sage who systematized the doctrines of the school and put them in short aphorisms or Sutras.
WHAT IS THE GOAL OF DARSHANAS ?-
1-The goal of all the six Darshanas is the removal of ignorance and its effects of pain and sufferings, and the attainment of freedom, perfection, and eternal bliss by the union of the individual soul or Jivatman with the Supreme Soul or Paramatman.
2-The Nyaya calls ignorance Mithya Jnana or false knowledge. The Sankhya styles it Aviveka or non-discrimination between the real and the unreal.
3-The Vedanta names it Avidya or nescience. Each philosophy aims at eradicating ignorance through knowledge or Jnana and achieve eternal bliss.
DATES OF THESE SYSTEMS;-
1-The exact dates of formalizing the six systems are not known, as the studies were originally purely oral, since writing had not yet been created. 2-However, estimates generally range from about 2,000-3,000 or more years ago. The absence of clear dates is also explained as coming from the fact that the practitioners were so focused on the timeless quality of higher truths that they simply didn't care to record dates.
THE SIX DARSHAN OF HINDUISM;-
06 FACTS;- 1-Ancient Indian thinkers stressed six darshanas, which are sometimes called the six schools of philosophy.
2-These are astika ..all find inspiration in different ways in the Vedas. And like the sculptor’s triple set of perspectives–front-back, left side-right side, top-bottom–the six darshanas have been seen as three complementarities, polarized directions that together mark the trajectory/ path of laser light through the unfathomable(immeasurable )reaches of ineffable wisdom.
3-The various schools of thought are different paths that lead to the same goal.
4-They generally deal with four topics:-
4-1-Brahman – The Creator - Existence and Nature of Brahman
4-2-Jiva –The Part of Brahman which separates from it- Nature of Jiva or the Individual soul
4-3-Jagat – The Created -Creation of Jagat or the world
4-4Returning back to Brahman -Moksha or Liberation and the disciplines that lead to it
5-The six systems had some differences and some common factors. The following two factors were common to all the six systems:
5-1-The soul undergoes endless cycles of rebirth and death – the doctrine of reincarnation of the soul and the cosmology of endless cosmic cycles
5-2-The possibility of the soul reaching perfection in this phenomenal world and transcending the cycle of rebirths and death i.e. attaining self realization or enlightenment or merging with God.
6-The above two themes are also found in Buddhism and Jainism. They first appeared in the Upanishads.
THE SIX SYSTEMS ARE;-
1-YOGA or techniques for meditation and transcendence BY; RISHI PATANJALI;-- 1-Practical methods for direct experience: Yoga systematically deals with all of the levels of one's being, striving to experience the eternal center of consciousness.
2-Yoga is best described in the Yoga Sutras and involves systematic witnessing of your inner states, so as to experientially go beyond all of them to the center of consciousness. Yoga is often called Sankhya-Yoga, as Yoga contains the practical methods to realize in direct experience the truths of Sankhya philosophy .. 2-SANKHYA ;BY RISHI KAPIL;--
03 POINTS;- 1- Sankhya philosophy offers a framework for all the levels of manifestation, from the subtlest to the grossest. Sankhya comes from samyag akhyate(आख्याति ;publication of a report) which literally means that which explains the whole.
2-Sankhya deals with prakriti (matter), purusha (consciousness), buddhi or mahat (intelligence), ahamkara (I-am-ness), three gunas (elements of stability, activity, and lightness), mind (manas), cognitive and active senses (indriyas), and the five subtle and gross elements (earth, water, fire, air, and space).
3-In light of its breadth, it contains all of the domains of Vaisheshika, Nyaya, and Mimasa, which are described below. 3-VEDANTA or metaphysical speculation (Uttara Mimansa); BY RISHI VEDAVYAS;--
1-Contemplative self-inquiry: Vedanta philosophy and practice provides contemplative methods of self-inquiry leading to the realization of one's true nature, that which is not subject to death, decay, or decomposition.
2-A major key of these practices is contemplation on the Mahavakyas. The teachings of Vedanta are best captured in the books of the Upanishads.
3-The text, Vivekachudamini (Crest Jewel of Discrimination) by Adi Shankaracharya is an excellent source, and is available in English translation.
4-For Shankara, this Self (atman) is sat-chit-ananda, being or existence, consciousness or cognition, and unqualified bliss. If there were no world, there would be no objects of experience, and so although the world as it is experienced is not ultimately real, it is neither abhava, non-existent, nor shunya, void.
5-Ignorance is the result of confusing atman, the unconditioned subject, with anatman, the external world. From the standpoint of the cosmos, the world is subject to space, time and causality, but since these categories arise from nascent experience, they are inherently inadequate save to point beyond themselves to the absolute, immutable, self-identical brahman, which is absolute Being (sat).
6-Atman is brahman, for the immutable singularity of the absolute subject, the Self, is not merely isomorphic, but radically identical with the transcendent singularity of the ultimate Reality. Individuals who have yet to realize this fundamental truth, which is in fact the whole Truth, impose out of ignorance various attitudes and conceptions on the world, like the man who mistakes an old piece of rope discarded on the trail for a poisonous serpent. He reacts to the serpent, but his responses are inappropriate and cause him to suffer unnecessarily, because there is no serpent on the trail to threaten him. Nonetheless, the rope is there.
7-For Shankara, the noumenal (incapable of being known) world is real, and when a person realizes its true nature, gaining wisdom thereby, his responses will be appropriate and cease to cause suffering. He will realize that he is the atman and that the atman is brahman. 4-VAISHESHIKA or "Atomism" ;BY RISHI KANADA;-- Physical sciences: The Vaisheshika system was developed by Prashastapada and emphasizes the physical sciences such as chemistry. It includes exploring the elements of earth, water, fire, air and space, as well as time, mind and soul. 5--NYAYAor "Logic” ;BY RISHI GAUTAM;--- Reasoning: The Nyaya system was founded by the ancient sage Gautama, and deals with logic, the process of reasoning. Doubt is considered a prerequisite for philosophical inquiry. Other systems of Indian philosophy draw on this process------VERY IMPORTANT for JUDICIAL SYSTEM. 6-PURVA MIMASA or ritualistic interpretation of the Vedas ;BY RISHI JAIMINI Freedom through action: The Mimasa system was founded by Jaimini and pursues freedom through action. It has a detailed philosophy related to ritual, worship and ethical conduct, which developed into the philosophy of karma.
WHAT IS THE INTERRELATION BETWEEN THE SIX SYSTEMS?-
During the time of Adi Sankaracharya, all the six schools of philosophy flourished. The six schools are divided into three groups:-
THE NYAYA & THE VAISHESHIKA
THE SANKHYA & THE YOGA
THE MIMASA & THE VEDANTA
1-THE NYAYA & THE VAISHESHIKA ;-
1-The Nyaya and the Vaiseshika give an analysis of the world of experience. By the study of Nyaya and Vaiseshika, one learns to utilize their intellect to find out fallacies and know about the material constitution of the world.
2-They arrange all things of the world into certain kinds or categories or Padarthas. They explain how God has made all this material world out of atoms and molecules, and show the way to attain Supreme Knowledge ; that of God.
2-THE SANKHYA & THE YOGA ;-
1-Through the study of Sankhya, one can understand the course of evolution. Postulated by the great sage Kapila, who is regarded as the father of psychology, the Sankhya provides an in-depth knowledge on Hindu psychology.
2-The study and practice of Yoga give one self-restraint and mastery over the mind and senses. The Yoga philosophy deals with meditation and the control of Vrittis or thought-waves and shows the ways to discipline the mind and the senses.
3-It helps one to cultivate concentration and one-pointedness of the mind and enter into the superconscious state known as Nirvikalpa Samadhi.
3-THE MIMASA & THE VEDANTA ;-
1-Mimamsa comprises two parts: The ‘Purva-Mimamsa’ deals with the Karma-Kanda of the Vedas which deals with action, and the ‘Uttara-Mimamsa’ with the Jnana-Kanda, which deals with knowledge.
2-The latter is also known as the ‘Vedanta-Darshana’ and forms the cornerstone of Hinduism. The Vedanta philosophy explains in detail the nature of Brahman or the Eternal Being and shows that the individual soul is, in essence, identical with the Supreme Self.
3-It gives methods to remove Avidya or the veil of ignorance and to merge oneself in the ocean of bliss, i.e., the Brahman. By the practice of Vedanta, one can reach the pinnacle of spirituality or divine glory and oneness with the Supreme Being.
WHICH IS THE MOST SATISFACTORY SYSTEM OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHY ?;-
1-Today, Vaisheshika, Nyaya, and Mimamsa do not have significant impact on the Indian thought and philosophy of life. Samkhya has been assimilated by Vedanta and has become a part of it. Yoga is popular worldwide as a practical technique of physical health and mental meditation.
2-The Vedanta is the most satisfactory system of philosophy and having evolved out of the Upanishads, it has superseded all other schools. According to the Vedanta, Self-realisation or Jnana is the foremost thing, and ritual and worship are mere accessories. Karma may take one to heaven but it cannot destroy the cycle of births and deaths, and cannot give eternal bliss and immortality.